The report is to demonstrate the potential of the waste-recycling sector and offer recommendations for how it can improve. The study considers the institutional and economic mechanisms that would help realize improvements in the most efficient manner. The target audience of the study consists of federal and regional government agencies that make policy and administer Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management sites. Additional target audiences include entities that are eligible to submit legislative initiatives designed to improve the operation and development of the MSW management system in Russia. The report is also of interest to potential investors and private companies planning to work in Russia’s waste management sector.