The report was conceived with Mriya, a long-term IFC client, and then was finalized and blossomed into a sector level initiative with involvement of the Ukrainian Association of Paper Producers (UkrPapir). The study estimates that only 30 percent of the domestic demand for paper and cardboard is satisfied by production in Ukraine. As a result, Ukraine must import about 1 million tons of paper (newsprint, offset, and coated). The main barrier to boosting domestic production and expanding the product line is a lack of feed stock available needed for the manufacturing process. Straw, now widely used in paper manufacturing globally, is under used in Ukraine. According to Ukrpapir, Ukraine will require a $2 billion investment to launch a major long-term straw-to-paper program that will involve the construction of up to ten facilities.